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  • AO-22 - 7.62x54R - The AO-22 is a belt fed machine gun chambered in 7.62x54R. It was designed by Vasiliy Gryazev, Lyubimov, Kastornov while at TsNIITochMash.
    • AO-22M - 7.62x54R - The AO-22M was developed by Gryazev and Lyubimov and is chambered in the 7.62x54R round. It comes in at 6.18 kilograms (13 lbs 10 oz) and is around 3lbs lighter then the PKM. It fires from an open bolt and ejects the spent cases forward. It is gas operated and has a quick change barrel.


  • AO-24 - 7.62x54R - The AO-24 is an experimental sniper rifle with a rather unusual striker fired system. When the user would pull the trigger, it would cam up a transfer bar, that would release the striker, where it would then cam down and hit the firing pin. When the rifle would cycle after being fired it would reset the cam. It was designed and manufactured at TSNIITOCHMASH.


  • AO-27 - 10x54R OPS- The AO-27 was an experimental rifle chambered in 10x54R. It fired a flechette round from a modified 7.62x54r case which had had been under development at TSNIITOCHMASH since 1960. The round was given the name OPS (Operennyj Podkalibernyj Strelkovyj - Feathered Sabot Rifle) The AO-53 was designed by D.I. Shiryaev in 1961 for a new program to improve the hit probability of the AK, from a non stabilized position. It was determined the solution to the problem was to lower felt recoil and lower the muzzle rise of the rifle. To achieve this the flechette round was used. The dart weights 37gr, flies at 1060 m/s (3478 fps) giving it 1348j (994 ft-lbs) of energy. The version of the rifle had a diopter rear sight and a front sight on the gas block. At the recommendation of the military, the rear sight was replace with a more conventional sight and the front was placed on the front of the barrel, by the muzzle. According to reports of the chief designer during the test, the AO-27 had several advantages over the AK it was competing against. The rifle was ultimately rejected from the trials. The biggest factors were the high cost of the ammo compared to conventional ammo, and the lack of stopping power. Comparing the 10x54R OPS to the standard 7.62x39.
Projectile Weight Speed Projectile Energy
37gr (10x54R OPS) 3478 FPS 994 FT-LBS
122gr (57-N-231) 2369 FPS 1555 FT-LBS



AO-34 - 5.45x39 - The AO-34 is a bullpup rifle designed by G. P. Petropavlov in 1964 while working at TsNIITochMash. It has a recoiling barrel and a system of spring buffers that are supposed to mitigate the felt recoil. the rifle empty comes in at 2.5kg (5.8lbs) with a rate of fire is 600 rpm. Additional Picture 1 - Additional Picture 2


  • AO-36 - 5.6x39 (.220 Russian) - The AO-36 was designed by Sergei Simonov and Pyotr Tkachev in 1965 while working at TsNIITochMash. It is a double barreled rifle that fires two rounds simultaneously. It has two barrels, but a single gas piston, bolt carrier, and bolt and has tiling bolt for the action. It feeds from a single magazine, that has 2 seperate springs and followers for each barrel, effectively making it two magazines in one body. The rifle was heavy, more expensive to manufacture then the AKM, and difficult to field strip. Only one rifle was ever manufactured.


  • A0-38 - 5.45x39 - The AO-38 was designed by Peter Andreevich in 1965 and was the first rifle to use the Balanced Automatic Recoil System (BARS). The AO-38 lead to the development of the AL-7 and AEK-971, which then lead to the creation of the AK-107.


AO-40 - The AO-40 was designed by Pyotr Tkachev. It uses a unique system where the rifle recoils inside a chassis. In burst mode the rifle fires all three rounds before it comes fully back in the outer chassis. Because of this the shooter only feels a single recoil impulse. One of the major drawbacks of the system was the magazine recoils with the rifle making it unwieldy and problematic.


  • AO-46 - 5.45x39 - The AO-46 was developed by Peter Andreevich Tkachev in 1969 while working at TsNIITochMash. It features a folding stock, that folds over the top of the receiver, and a trigger that is located in front of the magwell. The position of the trigger and magwell means you use the magazine as the grip. It uses a gas trap system, meaning that gas is not bled from a port in the barrel, but is captured at the muzzle in an expansion chamber before actuating a piston. While the rifle never went into service, it did lead to the development of Project Modern. This was because the US was using a shortened AR-15 called the XM-177, and the Russians saw need for such a rifle. The outcome of Project modern lead to the development of the AKS-74U.


  • A0-62 - 5.45x39 - Designed in 1965, the AO-62 led to the development of the AN-94 rifle. It is recoil operated with a special device that can resist recoil when the first three rounds are fired.


  • A0-63 - 5.45x39 - A two barrel AK variant capable of firing a two round burst with 0.01 second delay between shots giving it a 6000 RPM rate of fire. The AO-63 was dropped in favor of the AN-04 despite it being an accurate, simple to use rifle. The FCG has three settings. The first is semi auto firing one barrel, the second is full auto firing both barrels with a 0.01 second delay between shots, the third fires two rounds at 6000 RPM out of both barrels then one barrel at 850 RPM. The magazines are unique to the rifle. It has the main double column stack holding 30 rounds then a single column holding 15 rounds. Disassembled - Twin Gas Blocks - Front Sight - Magazine - Bolt - Piston - Trigger Assembly - Recoil Assembly


  • AO-64 - 6x44 - The AO-64 was designed by A. S. Kulikov V. I. Suslov in 1989 while working at TsNIITochMash. Its intended purpose was to replace the PKM machine gun but the AO-64 never went past the prototype stages. The PKM is considered one of the greatest machine guns designed to date.


  • AO-65 - 5.45x39 - The OA-65 was designed by Peter Tkachev.


  • AO-222 - The AO-222 was designed by Gennady Nikonov. It is unusual for a rifle in its class as the magazine is on the right side of the receiver, where as it is almost standard that it is on the bottom of the rifle. The side mounted mag had the added benefit of when laying prone, allowed the shooter to get closer to the ground. This was a common practice in WWII with submachine guns suchs as the Sten and Sterling both having this. The downside of this, is a slower reload and an unfamiliar manual of arms. Since it is common for magazines to be at the bottom of the rifle, it means you must retrain your soldiers. The rifle never left development stages. Nikonov would later famously design the AN-94, which did see limited use. Here we can see the AO-222 pictured with Max Popenker of